the-goddamazon:

hellacutexo:

jadehariey:

durbikins:

oh yeah, with the new size limit for .gifs this thing can finally be posted
image

what the fuck

wtf

I DON’T UNDERSTAND

historicalfirearms:

The Transition from a War of Movement to Trench Warfare

In 1914 a war of movement engulfed Europe, the Imperial German Army swung through Belgium and Holland down into Northern France as they enacted the Schlieffen Plan and the French, Belgian and British forces scrambled to meet them.  By the Battle of the Ainse in September 1914, which had seen the Germans retire to defensively favourable high ground which the allies were unable to dislodge them from, both sides were seeking to outflank their opponents.  This lead to a series of bloody battles along a front a 140 miles long which led all the way from North East France to the Channel coast.  The ‘Race to the Sea’ saw extensive use of the existing road and rail networks available in an attempt to get a head and around the enemy but by October 1914 neither side had managed to outflank the other and stalemate ensued. A network of trench defences were constructed the likes of which human history had never seen before.

Rough German trenches along the River Aisne, c. late 1914 (source)

In late September 1914, commander of the BEF, Field Marshal Sir John French wrote to the Duke of Connaught saying he believed: “nothing but the most powerful and efficient entrenchments will avail against the modern heavy artillery which is brought into the field.”  Such was the effect of modern, fast-firing, heavy artillery which in 1914 the German Army had the advantage in. The combination of heavy artillery, machine gun fire and terrain meant that by October 1914 the war of movement had given way to a stalemate.

The tactical doctrines of both sides had at first been in sharp contrast to one another, the French favoured rapid movement and surprise attacks while the German forces preferred a more methodical approach with the use of concentrated artillery and machine gun fire in support.  These two contrasting doctrines neutralised one another, with the French counter-offensives being met by massed artillery and machine gun fire.  

British Troops in what look like recently dug (possibly practice) trenches (source)

The advancing technology played a key role in creating the horrific trench warfare we think of when we think of the First world war.  Not only advances in artillery and the widespread introduction of machine guns but also the effects of massed, rapid and accurate rifle fire.  As seen time and time again during the early battles of the war even forces under equipped with machine guns could inflict massive casualties on troops caught in open country with long range, accurate, massed rifle fire.  The combination of powerful cartridges and magazine fed bolt-action rifles meant that the volume of fire created by a battalion of infantry could be huge.    As such, even during early engagements, the infantry often took full advantage of the natural cover available, using farm ditches, tree lines and sunken roads as cover.   It did not take long for men to begin to dig their own cover when no natural protection was available.  This being a pre-programmed response of any soldier halted by enemy resistance. As the Race to the Sea began it was a small step from improvised defences to beginnings of the intricate trench systems we think of today.  

The photographs above roughly illustrate this evolution from open warfare, through use of cover and the digging of scrapes to the creation of the trenches that came to characterise the war.  This evolution took place as different paces in the various sectors of the Western Front but by early 1915 the entire front had become a continuous line of defensive trenches.

In the first photograph we see German troops advancing across a field in open order, with the battalion’s ensign (battle flag) flying - a scene which would have been seen on Europe’s battlefield for the past 500 years.  In the next three photographs we see German, British & French troops using natural cover of ditches and roads.  

British Troops training in mock trenches c.1915 (source)

In the fourth photograph we can see British troops lying in shallow, hastily dug scrape trenches and similarly below that two German troops stand watch at the edge of a shallow trench.  The last photograph shows the beginnings of more complex trenches - deeper with sloped rear walls and a parapet, this photo was taken in the winter of 1914.  By the early months of 1915 both sides began work on ever more complex trench systems with multiple lines of trenches, zigzagged layout profiles, deeper trenches, reinforced firesteps, dugouts, bunkers, observations posts, increased use of concrete and ever deeper belts of barbed wire.  By late 1916 the pinnacle of technical complexity and defensibility had been reached requiring new ways to overcome the stalemate.

Sources:

Image Sources:

Photograph 1

Photograph 2

Photograph 3

Photograph 4

Photograph 5

Photograph 6

Photograph 7

Trench: A History of Trench Warfare on the Western Front, S. Bull, (2010)

"When you’re at the pool lounging on a beach chair and some little kids are running and the lifeguard screams out “no running” do you respond “excuse me, not all of us are running”? No, you don’t. The lifeguard didn’t have to specifically state who they were talking to because you’re intelligent enough to comprehend that the comment wasn’t being directed at you."

Found a quote that shuts down that “not all men” argument pretty well. (via mykicks)

AHaha. haaaa. hh.

(via thefeministbookclub)

astairical:

Fred Astaire and Erik Rhodes have a sass-off in Top Hat (1935).

NEW ATRIARCH ALBUM OUT OCTOBER 27th!

-rolls around on the floor for a while-

THIS IS A GOOD SEASON FOR METAL, COMRADES.

liberalsarecool:

the-goddamazon:

solarsenpai:

thighetician:

arienreign:

Why isn’t anyone talking about this?
http://www.dailydot.com/news/darrien-hunt-shot-by-police-while-cosplaying/

Why is there a picture of Mugen from Samurai Champloo tossed in?

He was cosplaying as Mugen from Samurai Champloo with a picture on the left side for comparison.

People have BEEN talking about this since it happened, you’re just following the wrong people.

Follow the right people.

benhorak:

I’ve decided to start doing a weekly-ish comic. It begins here with, “Sticks & Stones”


Wow. SunnO)))’s really goin’ all out now.

Wow. SunnO)))’s really goin’ all out now.

oldshowbiz:

Did I already post this? Doesn’t matter. You should look at it again.

oldshowbiz:

Did I already post this? Doesn’t matter. You should look at it again.

sammiwolfe:

pilgrimstateofmind:

ATTENTION FOR A SECOND, YO: Real talk, this animal (the Ordovician Helmet crab, aka the Horseshoe crab, aka the Atlantic’s most at-risk shelled animal) is of a species that is close to 450 million years old. They are considered endangered, and often wash up on the shores of Long Island (this big lady crab was at TR park in Oyster Bay)Note: these animals are often used to extract their blue blood and cure diseases. They help the ocean out big time. And they are one of the longest-surviving species on the planet. They’re washing up and people don’t think to/are scared to save them because of their deceivingly harmless barbs. Take note, friends. Their barbs are NOT stingers. They cannot hurt you. Their pinchers aren’t pinchers, they’re just little legs that are actually really soft! The barb tail they have is actually what they use to stick into the ocean floor or the sand when waves knock them over or they flip onto their backs by accident. And you can help them out by flipping them back over very quickly and helping them scuttle back into the water if you see them struggling. This is way important. Just call me the Sarah McLachlan of horseshoe crabs.

Hey everyone, as someone who grew up with horseshoe crabs literally everywhere I’d like to bring your attention to these fine, prehistoric bottom-feeders. Growing up in Gerritsen Beach (In Brooklyn, NY) meant seeing dozens upon dozens of horseshoe crabs trapped in fishing lines and shredded sandbags, stuck above the high-tide marks during low tide, and sometimes washed up on the rocks. Which led to probably hundreds of hours cutting them loose every summer during the mating seasons. Horseshoe crabs are 10000% harmless to you and can be easily handled (just don’t dangle them from their tails (known as a telson); that’s painful and you may accidentally rip the tail off and they’ll have to wait until their next molt to grow a new one!).
If you see a horseshoe crab on the beach, gently nudge it with your foot. Most of them will respond by waving their telson around. If it doesn’t respond, flip it over to check for moving limbs. If you suspect it is tangled and can’t move and you can’t bring it straight to the water because of this get a bucket of sea water and slowly pour it over the book gills and legs. As you work to untangle these rad critters, which are actually more closely related to spiders than crabs, pour more water over it periodically until you can return it to the ocean. However, during the mating season horseshoe crabs will attach together, with the large female toting around a smaller male behind her, and bury themselves in sand and mud to lay their eggs. Do not dig up these horseshoe crabs unless you are absolutely sure that they are stuck above the high tide mark. If you see dozens of beached horseshoe crabs but none of them are clinging together and the tide is going out, please do your part and turn them back in the direction of the water. Place them at the water’s edge and let them decide which direction they want to go in to be absolutely sure that they aren’t stranded accidentally.
Horseshoe crabs cannot bite you, and their “pincers” are really just for picking up food and don’t hurt if they try to grab you. They may be a little intimidating-looking but they are harmless and will be grateful for your help.

Just look at all those friendly legs waiting to tickle you in thanks for helping them not die a slow death of baking in the sun and getting eaten by gulls and other sea birds!
Please, protect our bottom feeding horseshoe crabs at all costs. Yes their blood has important medicinal value, being copper-based unlike our iron-based blood, but overharvesting them can have devastating effects on our underwater ecosystems. When being harvested for blood they should actually be returned to the ocean after taking a little, rather than bled dry

sammiwolfe:

pilgrimstateofmind:

ATTENTION FOR A SECOND, YO: 

Real talk, this animal (the Ordovician Helmet crab, aka the Horseshoe crab, aka the Atlantic’s most at-risk shelled animal) is of a species that is close to 450 million years old. They are considered endangered, and often wash up on the shores of Long Island (this big lady crab was at TR park in Oyster Bay)

Note: these animals are often used to extract their blue blood and cure diseases. They help the ocean out big time. And they are one of the longest-surviving species on the planet. They’re washing up and people don’t think to/are scared to save them because of their deceivingly harmless barbs. 

Take note, friends. Their barbs are NOT stingers. They cannot hurt you. Their pinchers aren’t pinchers, they’re just little legs that are actually really soft! The barb tail they have is actually what they use to stick into the ocean floor or the sand when waves knock them over or they flip onto their backs by accident. And you can help them out by flipping them back over very quickly and helping them scuttle back into the water if you see them struggling. 

This is way important. Just call me the Sarah McLachlan of horseshoe crabs.

Hey everyone, as someone who grew up with horseshoe crabs literally everywhere I’d like to bring your attention to these fine, prehistoric bottom-feeders. Growing up in Gerritsen Beach (In Brooklyn, NY) meant seeing dozens upon dozens of horseshoe crabs trapped in fishing lines and shredded sandbags, stuck above the high-tide marks during low tide, and sometimes washed up on the rocks. Which led to probably hundreds of hours cutting them loose every summer during the mating seasons. Horseshoe crabs are 10000% harmless to you and can be easily handled (just don’t dangle them from their tails (known as a telson); that’s painful and you may accidentally rip the tail off and they’ll have to wait until their next molt to grow a new one!).

If you see a horseshoe crab on the beach, gently nudge it with your foot. Most of them will respond by waving their telson around. If it doesn’t respond, flip it over to check for moving limbs. If you suspect it is tangled and can’t move and you can’t bring it straight to the water because of this get a bucket of sea water and slowly pour it over the book gills and legs. As you work to untangle these rad critters, which are actually more closely related to spiders than crabs, pour more water over it periodically until you can return it to the ocean. However, during the mating season horseshoe crabs will attach together, with the large female toting around a smaller male behind her, and bury themselves in sand and mud to lay their eggs. Do not dig up these horseshoe crabs unless you are absolutely sure that they are stuck above the high tide mark. If you see dozens of beached horseshoe crabs but none of them are clinging together and the tide is going out, please do your part and turn them back in the direction of the water. Place them at the water’s edge and let them decide which direction they want to go in to be absolutely sure that they aren’t stranded accidentally.

Horseshoe crabs cannot bite you, and their “pincers” are really just for picking up food and don’t hurt if they try to grab you. They may be a little intimidating-looking but they are harmless and will be grateful for your help.

Just look at all those friendly legs waiting to tickle you in thanks for helping them not die a slow death of baking in the sun and getting eaten by gulls and other sea birds!

Please, protect our bottom feeding horseshoe crabs at all costs. Yes their blood has important medicinal value, being copper-based unlike our iron-based blood, but overharvesting them can have devastating effects on our underwater ecosystems. When being harvested for blood they should actually be returned to the ocean after taking a little, rather than bled dry

titan